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BlackEagle/BlackEagle Logistics & Procurement Branch,Data Support Section
Results of Criminal Organizations Database Search:1st of October Antifascist Resistance Group
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1st of October Anti-Fascist Resistance Group #CR0002231 (Also... Some alternate names are aliases, other are names for specific subgroups or cells). Grupo de Resistencia Antifascista, Primero de Octubre GRAPO October First Antifascist Resistance Group Source: CIA, EuroTer, Interpol, MI-6 Type: Political terrorist organization Scope: A dormant terrorist organization, once quite active throughout Spain and Western Europe, targeting Spanish, French and U.S. targets. Affiliations: Direct ties between the GRAPO and foreign terrorist groups or state Sponsors: have not been established. The GRAPO, however, has made public statements in support of a number of other terrorist groups, including the German Red Army Faction [#CR0001960] and the Italian Red Brigades [#CR0000659]. [Interpol] GRAPO once had ties with Direct Action [#CR0000821] and the Red Brigades. [MI-6] Personnel: Less than 25 [CIA] Operating Since: 1975 Structure: GRAPO's structure has been based on a cellular concept for maximum internal security. These cells are probably quite small in view of the group's limited numbers. GRAPO members are either legal commandos or liberated commandos. The legal commandos, unknown to police, lead apparently normal lives and periodically carry out terrorist actions. The liberated commandos are full-time members who are known to the authorities and live underground. [EuroTer] Leaders: Juan Carlos Delgado de Codex [#LL], leader killed 1979. Manuel Perez Martinez [#LL] (aka Camarada Arenas), last known leader. Legitimate Connections: None known. Resources: Smallarms and some explosives. Moderate intelligence and support, with a low level of training. GRAPO has financed its operations through kidnap ransoms, bank robberies, and extorting revolutionary taxes" from individuals and businesses. These sources of funds have proved adequate for financing its range of operations and for procuring weapons and explosives. Suspected Criminal Activity: GRAPO has carried out a number of noteworthy actions, more than half constituted bombings, in which at least 8 were killed and 46 wounded. Bombing attacks have targeted foreign businesses, mainly U.S. and French firms, Spanish government offices, and the U.S. Cultural Center in Madrid. Assassinations have killed senior Spanish military officers, the director of penal institutions, the president of the Seville Association of Businessmen, as well as Civil Guardsmen and ordinary police. More recently GRAPO bombed the Madrid Stock Exchange, the Constitutional Court, and the Economics Ministry in September 1990, wounding six people. GRAPO claimed credit for having bombed parts of the NATO oil pipeline in Spain and also claimed to have bombed a railroad line outside of Madrid. GRAPO leader Juan Carlos Delgado de Codex had been killed in a shoot-out with police in 1979, and by 1991 some 20 GRAPO activists were arrested and fewer than a dozen were suspected to be remaining at large then. Additional Commentary: GRAPO emerged in 1975 as the military component of the Communist Party of Spain- Reconstituted, an illegal splinter group with Maoist tendencies that emerged out of the legal Spanish Communist Party. GRAPO is seeking to overthrow the Spanish state in favor of a Marxist state. GRAPO opposes Spanish membership in NATO and the U.S. presence in Spain. An urban-oriented group, GRAPO has committed assassinations, bombings, and kidnapings against Spanish personnel and facilities. On occasion it also has attacked US interests. The group has preferred ambushes using automatic weapons. Successful Spanish police operations led to the arrests of the most significant known GRAPO members in January 1985. Although the GRAPO has not committed any significant act of terrorism since December 1984, it has demonstrated the capability to rebuild and to conduct minor operations, such as the robberies that took place in southern Spain in 1987.